Psalms 138 to 142

PSALM 138

Background. A Thanksgiving psalm from the days when Yahweh was believed to be one of many gods, the greatest, to be sure, but not the only one. Yahweh’s supremacy entails a universalism: all the kings of the earth shall praise him. In verse 6 the subject abruptly changes to the first person singular. Is it the king? Humility characterizes the psalmist’s attitude before Yahweh whose virtues are precisely that he regards the lowly and defenseless. But the poet makes acknowledgement of an official mandate or mission of some kind, a “purpose” imposed by Yahweh which the supplicant seeks support to fulfill.

Reflection. LIFE has only one purpose, more LIFE. It would seem difficult NOT to fulfill one’s purpose in LIFE since we are biologically programmed to reproduce and care for our offspring. But our emptiness of self means that we are simultaneously the effect of a myriad of causes. We are each a microcosm of the totality of matter’s living energy. Our conatus and its ancillary drives is also an expression of the totality’s self-embrace as an inter-dependent network of mutuality and sharing. We recognize how all things strive to stay alive. LIFE is exalted above everything. To be-here is to die for. We are conscious of bearing the burden of LIFE to expand LIFE, protect it, nurture it. We are part of a whole and cannot live for ourselves.

1 I give you thanks, O LORD, with my whole heart; before the gods I sing your praise;

2 I bow down toward your holy temple and give thanks to your name for your steadfast love and your faithfulness; for you have exalted your name and your word above everything.

3 On the day I called, you answered me, you increased my strength of soul.

4 All the kings of the earth shall praise you, O LORD, for they have heard the words of your mouth.

5 They shall sing of the ways of the LORD, for great is the glory of the LORD.

This overwhelming privilege ― to be an emergent expression of LIFE’S living energy ― imposes a heavy responsibility: each of us has to learn how to live for the whole, and not for ourselves alone. Living for others is not something we can sustain spontaneously. We need to train ourselves, discipline ourselves, habituate ourselves to the service of others. LIFE depends on our transformation into being the mirrors and agents of its generosity, and if we call on LIFE to fulfill its purpose in us, it is ourselves we are calling on ― for we are LIFE.

6 For though the LORD is high, he regards the lowly; but the haughty he perceives from far away.

7 Though I walk in the midst of trouble, you preserve me against the wrath of my enemies; you stretch out your hand, and your right hand delivers me.

8 The LORD will fulfill his purpose for me; your steadfast love, O LORD, endures forever. Do not forsake the work of your hands.

 

PSALM 139

Background. Murphy says “the ‘I-Thou’ character of this psalm makes it one of the most personal and beautiful expressions in the OT.” (JBC, OT, p.600) The psalmist is enraptured with the intimate presence of Yahweh. With an interpersonal mysticism that is rarely found expressed in ancient times, this poem seems either to have anticipated future developments or actually been a later wisdom product, like the Song of Solomon, that was captured for inclusion in the Temple’s liturgical collection. The abrupt change in the last five verses to protestations of “hatred” for Yahweh’s enemies suggests the former. This is not the spirituality of the Upanishads which had already adumbrated the desirability of non-violence; it is classic Yahwism ― still a warrior religion.

Reflection. LIFE is more intimate to us that we are to ourselves. This echoes Augustine’s perceptive insight: Tu autem eras interior intimo meo … (Conf., 3.6.11). This is so because there really is no duality, no separation, no difference, no distinction, between what we are and LIFE. We are LIFE ― matter’s living existential energy ― in one of its emerged forms. We are not different from it even though we are not all of it. LIFE transcends any of us … and all of us … for it is the inexhaustible source that enlivens all things and will continue to enliven things as they emerge into perceptible existence throughout the immeasurable future of our material cosmos. This strange paradox ― that LIFE is more than us even though we are all and only LIFE ― accounts for our persistent instinctive urge to call out to it, to communicate with it, to ask it for help as if it were something other than us. And for that same reason, when we awake from our distracted mindlessness and come face to face with our reality as an evolved emergent form of LIFE, it feels as if we are suddenly in the presence of someone else. That surprise is simply an indication of how alienated we had become from ourselves.

Once it becomes clear that the presence of LIFE is more intimate than even the closeness of a lover or parent, the corollary images explode like fireworks in the poet’s mind: LIFE is with me everywhere that I am or could ever be … in whatever condition or state of mind. Even in hell … yes, even in hell.  The psalmist’s consciousness of the creative biological activity that “knit” and “wove” her body in preparation for birth, anticipates the clarifications of modern science to a remarkable degree. The poetry provides its own rich and evocative metaphors. It can be embraced as it is. It needs no commentary.

1 O LORD, you have searched me and known me.

2 You know when I sit down and when I rise up; you discern my thoughts from far away.

3 You search out my path and my lying down, and are acquainted with all my ways.

4 Even before a word is on my tongue, O LORD, you know it completely.

5 You hem me in, behind and before, and lay your hand upon me.

6 Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is so high that I cannot attain it.

7 Where can I go from your spirit? Or where can I flee from your presence?

8 If I ascend to heaven, you are there; if I make my bed in Sheol, you are there.

Even when I have been living distractedly; even when I have been acting selfishly, mindlessly, LIFE is there activating my organism with undeterred generosity and tireless energy.  Even when I forget who I am, even in the dregs of dissolution and despair LIFE sustains me.  There is no escape. LIFE’s way is always open to me.  There is no space or time for guilt; even when I have abandoned and betrayed the way of transformation, LIFE is fully present and I am alive with it.  I waste no time in seeking forgiveness; the only one I have hurt is myself.  Get back on your horse!

9 If I take the wings of the morning and settle at the farthest limits of the sea,

10 even there your hand shall lead me, and your right hand shall hold me fast.

11 If I say, “Surely the darkness shall cover me, and the light around me become night,”

12 even the darkness is not dark to you; the night is as bright as the day, for darkness is as light to you.

13 For it was you who formed my inward parts; you knit me together in my mother’s womb.

14 I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works; that I know very well.

15 My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately woven in the depths of the earth.

I ride on LIFE’S energy to be-here. I am constructed of living matter ― LIFE ― it is who and what I am. I live so that LIFE may abound.

16 Your eyes beheld my unformed substance. In your book were written all the days that were formed for me, when none of them as yet existed.

17 How weighty to me are your thoughts, O God! How vast is the sum of them!

18 I try to count them — they are more than the sand; I come to the end — I am still with you.

The following verses is where the poet reveals his primitive Yahwism. He still worships a warrior god. He has yet to realize that LIFE has no enemies and hates no one. Those that contend against LIFE are themselves, like all of us, emerged forms of LIFE. We cannot separate ourselves from them, nor does LIFE need to be protected from them. LIFE can take care of itself.

And since we are LIFE, we don’t really need to protect ourselves either. We may do so to establish the boundaries of justice and to educate our assailant, but not out of need. What we should hate is that inclination in us always ready “to speak maliciously of LIFE, and lift ourselves up against it for evil.”

19 O that you would kill the wicked, O God, and that the bloodthirsty would depart from me

20 those who speak of you maliciously, and lift themselves up against you for evil!

21 Do I not hate those who hate you, O LORD?   And do I not loathe those who rise up against you?

22 I hate them with perfect hatred; I count them my enemies.

23 Search me, O God, and know my heart; test me and know my thoughts.

24 See if there is any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.

 

PSALM 140

Background. An individual lament. The psalmist in traditional Yahwist style thinks of “God” as a powerful knight errant ready to defend the weak and those under his protection. The poet wants his enemies punished with exactly those torments they had devised for him. Thus the justice of vengeance is not transcended, merely updated and assigned to Yahweh.

Reflection. LIFE has no enemies and cannot be called up to punish those who operate out of synch with its patterns. Vengeance is obsolete. Punishment occurs, however, but it is the result of a cause that has been introduced into the chain of natural events that will produce a negative effect. No one is carrying out this sentence, it is a simple case of cause and effect. One could call it a mechanism except for the fact that we are capable of choosing otherwise. Once chosen, however, the effect is inevitable. The Buddhists call it karma. It is a simple corollary to understanding human morality to be not the “will” of a “God,” but the nature of the human organism-in-community.

In using this psalm, therefore, it is preferable to transpose the entire scenario as imagined to the level of metaphor. The only real “enemy” is my selfish illusory attempt to aggrandize myself and deny the existence of my place in the totality … in this family, in this clan, in this village, in this human species, on this earth, in this universe … and fail to activate the justice and generosity my membership in all these concentric circles entails. I recognize that it is self-aggrandize­ment, either of the individual or of some group, that “stir up wars continually,” and in that pursuit “make their tongue sharp as a snake’s.” These are the products of human selfishness and, at the end of the day, human selfishness is responsible for all our troubles. We want the consequences of our actions to stand clearly before our eyes so that the torments we plan for others in our quest for supremacy we will feel as if our own. It is our empathy leading to compassion that will deter us from ever taking the downward path toward an ever more insane self-destructive selfishness.

1 Deliver me, O LORD, from evildoers; protect me from those who are violent,

2 who plan evil things in their minds and stir up wars continually.

3 They make their tongue sharp as a snake’s, and under their lips is the venom of vipers.

4 Guard me, O LORD, from the hands of the wicked; protect me from the violent who have planned my downfall.

5 The arrogant have hidden a trap for me, and with cords they have spread a net, along the road they have set snares for me.

6 I say to the LORD, “You are my God; give ear, O LORD, to the voice of my supplications.”

7 O LORD, my Lord, my strong deliverer, you have covered my head in the day of battle.

8 Do not grant, O LORD, the desires of the wicked; do not further their evil plot.

9 Those who surround me lift up their heads; let the mischief of their lips overwhelm them!

10 Let burning coals fall on them! Let them be flung into pits, no more to rise!

This vengeful and retaliatory sentiment is an indication of the age of this ancient poetry. The mindset was already obsolete by the time of the writing of the Book of Proverbs where we read:

If your enemies are hungry, give them bread to eat; and if they are thirsty, give them water to drink; for you will heap coals of fire on their heads, and the LORD will reward you. (Proverbs, ch 25: 21-22; cf. Romans, 12: 20)

This attitude cited by Paul, which has been falsely ascribed to Jesus and Christianity, is thoroughly Jewish and antedated Jesus by many centuries. It highlights the fact that Jesus’ message was simply a renewed call to Jews to live the way “God” wanted Jews to live. It has been part of Buddhist practice in the doctrine of karma from the beginning. As you sow, so shall you reap.

11 Do not let the slanderer be established in the land; let evil speedily hunt down the violent!

12 I know that the LORD maintains the cause of the needy, and executes justice for the poor.

13 Surely the righteous shall give thanks to your name; the upright shall live in your presence.

 

PSALM 141

Background. An individual lament. This poet is acutely conscious of his moral connection to Yahweh and is aware of his own proclivities to selfishness; he believes. Like the psalmist of 139, that Yahweh presides over his conscience and his behavior and enlists his help to avoid abandoning the right path. He clearly conflates the work of evildoers with seduction. Evil is not only what is done against him, but is also the trap designed to lure him into living selfishly.

Reflection. The ardent commitment to following LIFE’s way is the mark of someone on the path to transformation. Those who have truly made that choice know exactly how precarious it is, as the pressures coming from the conatus are at times overwhelming. Not only does our “self” urge us to “get whatever we can for ourselves,” but it suspects all others are doing the same thing and convinces us to mistrust them. But the reverse is also true: treat others with trust and generosity and the conatus, ours and theirs together, will get confused, begin to doubt its clarity, waiver and weaken. Ardent commitment alone will support the sustained practices necessary to undermine the reign of selfishness. It is no surprise that we may feel weak in the knees when confronted with this “Goliath” of a conatus. No wonder we are inclined to look for help. But it is LIFE itself that burns with the desire for more LIFE. LIFE, the LIFE that enlivens us and that we ourselves mange and direct, will not allow a mindless conatus to take its energies and harness them to the empty demands of an evanescent “ego” seeking to make itself a “god.” Once caught in the trap ― individual or collective ― LIFE seeks liberation. Once liberated, LIFE seeks to liberate all. LIFE is all there is. The rest is all mirage.

1 I call upon you, O LORD; come quickly to me; give ear to my voice when I call to you.

2 Let my prayer be counted as incense before you, and the lifting up of my hands as an evening sacrifice.

3 Set a guard over my mouth, O LORD; keep watch over the door of my lips.

4 Do not turn my heart to any evil, to busy myself with wicked deeds in company with those who work iniquity; do not let me eat of their delicacies.

5 Let the righteous strike me; let the faithful correct me. Never let the oil of the wicked anoint my head, for my prayer is continually against their wicked deeds.

6 When they are given over to those who shall condemn them, then they shall learn that my words were pleasant.

7 Like a rock that one breaks apart and shatters on the land, so shall their bones be strewn at the mouth of Sheol.

LIFE has the power to shatter the chains that bind us to a selfish and wasted existence. The false ego, generated by the mindless conatus’ imaginary goals for achieving immortality, is really no match for the self that is enlivened and empowered by LIFE itself.

8 But my eyes are turned toward you, O GOD, my Lord; in you I seek refuge; do not leave me defenseless.

9 Keep me from the trap that they have laid for me, and from the snares of evildoers.

10 Let the wicked fall into their own nets, while I alone escape.

 

PSALM 142

Background. Another individual lament. The poet calls on Yahweh for help against enemies for he has “no one who cares.” Yahweh is his “portion;” as in psalm 15, Yahweh is his inheritance, he has nothing else. What seems to make him poor actually is the source of great bounty.

Reflection. This psalm is easily transposed into a metaphor. The enemies, as always, are the enemies of LIFE. It is LIFE, whose ways are the poet’s guarantee of health, strength and prosperity, that he clings to. Of course, the selfishness that is the enemy of LIFE is not only my selfishness. Others also can succumb to the false enticements of the self-aggrandizing ego, and when they do, that array is daunting. Hedged in by enemies, you can feel like you’re in prison. LIFE liberates, first by calling on the oppressed to assert their own embrace of LIFE, then by calling on the LIFE that enlivens the enemies themselves to awaken.

1 With my voice I cry to the LORD; with my voice I make supplication to the LORD.

2 I pour out my complaint before him; I tell my trouble before him. When my spirit is faint, you know my way. In the path where I walk they have hidden a trap for me.

4 Look on my right hand and see — there is no one who takes notice of me; no refuge remains to me; no one cares for me.

5 I cry to you, O LORD; I say, “You are my refuge, my portion in the land of the living.”

“My portion” ― a deeply moving image. It applies with literal ferocity to the emergent forms pf living matter, which we are. We are nothing else than living matter. LIFE is our portion. There is nothing else to “get.” LIFE, matter’s living, existential energy, is all there is. It is our portion, our inheritance, because we are the direct offspring, the legitimate descendants of LIFE.

6 Give heed to my cry, for I am brought very low. Save me from my persecutors, for they are too strong for me.

7 Bring me out of prison, so that I may give thanks to your name. The righteous will surround me, for you will deal bountifully with me.

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